Albert Ellis and the unhappy golfer


Updated on 8th February 2021

Albert Ellis and the Unhappy Golfer:

A critique of the simplistic ABC model of REBT

By Dr Jim Byrne

The Institute for E-CENT Publications: 2019.



Front cover, Ellis and the Golfer3This book is about two characters, both of whom are psychologically damaged:

The first is a man (whose age we do not know), who went out yesterday to play a game of golf with some peers (about whom we know nothing), and his peers showed that they did not like him. Today he is terribly unhappy.  We shall call him “the unhappy golfer”.

The second character is a man (whose age we do know), who was seriously neglected, and virtually abandoned at times, by his mother and father.  (It seems to me that his winning formula in life became this: Deny that I was hurt.  Deny that I had any needs.  Become detached from my feelings.  Become an Extreme Stoic.  Deny that I can be harmed.  Deny that anybody can hurt me.)  We shall call him what his mother and father called him, Albert Ellis, and add the prefix, Doctor; because he gained a doctorate in clinical psychology.

The unhappy golfer is in Dr Albert Ellis’s office, in New York City, somewhere around the end of the 1950’s.  He tells Dr Ellis that he feels terribly unhappy about being rejected by his golfing peers, and Dr Ellis tells him: This is something you are doing to yourself!


Get your paperback copy of the new book today:

Amazon USA Amazon UK and Ireland Amazon Canada
Amazon Germany Amazon Spain Amazon Italy
Amazon Japan Amazon France Shipping to Singapore


This book consists of five parts:

Front cover, Ellis and the Golfer3Part 3 is a critical analysis, line by line, of the case study of the unhappy golfer. The case study appeared in Albert Ellis’s 1962 book, Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy.  I have numbered each line of the dialogue between Ellis and the unhappy golfer, and commented upon the errors committed by Ellis in dealing with this unhappy man. Ellis interpreted the golfer’s problem, using his simple ABC model, and concluded that nothing but a B (or a belief – in the golfer’s head) could have caused him to feel terribly unhappy about his peers not liking him. I present a critical rejection of that perspective.

In Part 2, I move up into ‘helicopter view’, up above the action, and sketch out the broad brush strokes of the encounter between Ellis and the unhappy golfer. And I add a few more critical comments upon Ellis’s errors.

Then in Part 4, I take my analysis beyond the simple ABC model, into a world in which the unhappy golfer has a body, and not just a mind on legs; in which he has emotional needs for social connection; and in which there are multiple potential sources of his terrible unhappiness.

Part 5 is my overall conclusion.

The book is written in an accessible style, with most of the specialist knowledge stored in appendices at the back of the book, to avoid cluttering the text.  And the book is based on my 25 year engagement with REBT; and my 12 years of critical analysis of REBT theory.  Plus my study of more than 15 alternative ways of thinking about human emotions, and disturbed individuals.


Get your paperback copy of the new book today:

Amazon USA Amazon UK and Ireland Amazon Canada
Amazon Germany Amazon Spain Amazon Italy
Amazon Japan Amazon France Shipping to Singapore


Front cover, Ellis and the Golfer3If you study this book carefully, you will develop a reasonably sound, but basic, understanding of the golfer’s ‘personality adaptation(s)’; his ‘ego states’, and how he might move between them; his ‘attachment style’ (secure or insecure; avoidant or clingy).

You will also learn:

– Eight ways that the unhappy golfer could have re-framed his experience of peer rejection, to feel significantly less unhappy; without denying his existence as an emotional being, who has social-emotional needs;

– How the unhappy golfer could have managed his mind better, including the use of critical thinking; and:

– How to understand his terrible unhappiness; and how to manage grief and depression, using diet, exercise, sleep, self-talk, and much more besides.

Dr Jim's office2If you want to move beyond the simple, simplistic – dehumanizing – ABC model of REBT, then this book will provide you with the tools to do so.

I hope you enjoy it.

Dr Jim Byrne, Hebden Bridge, July 2019




Get your paperback copy of the new book today:

Amazon USA Amazon UK and Ireland Amazon Canada
Amazon Germany Amazon Spain Amazon Italy
Amazon Japan Amazon France Shipping to Singapore


Part 1: Introduction

Front cover, Ellis and the Golfer3Dr Albert Ellis was one of the most controversial psychotherapists in the history of psychotherapy, inciting as much love as hatred and rejection.  I followed him and his system of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) as a devoted fan, from 1992 to about 2007 – a period of more than fifteen years.  Then I began to write analytical papers exploring various aspects of his theory, which eventually built up into a major critique of the foundations of REBT.

I was originally trained as an REBT therapist, and I practiced as an REBT therapist from 1998 to about 2008 – period of ten years – but with increasing additions of elements of the other thirteen systems of therapy that I had studied post-MA.

In this present book I want to explore a chapter (six) from Dr Ellis’s 1962 book, titled Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. This book was his first major attempt to collate the various elements of his theory, developed in various journal articles, into a single source book.  However, because it was actually a collection of articles, written across the later 1950’s, there are contradictions and tensions between the various chapters, and a lack of consistent theory.

For example, in Chapter 2 he argues, among other things, that thinking and feeling are connected, overlapping and mutually causative; and he cites a range of theorists to support this view: (See, for examples, pages 38-45).   However, in Chapter 6, he works with a client (the unhappy golfer) who is terribly unhappy because the men he played golf with, the day before seeing Ellis for therapy, showed that they disliked Ellis’s client. In this case, Ellis does not take the view that thinking and feeling are overlapping and in certain respects essentially the same thing.  And he dumped his earlier (Chapter 2) understanding of the client as a creatures of habit; with bodily involvement in the causation of his emotions; which are habit based and linked back through the client’s personal history. Instead he insisted that the client’s feelings of unhappiness were not caused by his fellow golfers, who did not like Ellis’s client; but that “this is something you did to yourself!”

Get your paperback copy of the new book today:

Amazon USA Amazon UK and Ireland Amazon Canada
Amazon Germany Amazon Spain Amazon Italy
Amazon Japan Amazon France Shipping to Singapore


Front cover, Ellis and the Golfer3In my experience of Albert Ellis – from reading his books and articles; watching him demonstrating REBT in video clips, and the Master Therapist Series; and corresponding with him – the way he deals with the unhappy golfer is more characteristic of his approach to therapy than his writings in Chapter 2, which were much more complex and holistic.

Therefore, I have decided to write this book about the unhappy golfer, because Albert Ellis’s treatment of the unhappy golfer is typical of the REBT approach, as practiced by Albert Ellis and his closest followers, and many REBT therapists who have been trained, educated or influenced by Dr Albert Ellis.

In Part 3 of this book, I present the case study of the unhappy golfer, as presented by Ellis (1962), but with numbered lines for ease of reference.  I then analyse the fine detail of Ellis’s encounter with the unhappy golfer.

Then, in Part 2, I present more of a helicopter overview of my analysis from Part 3; plus some additional criticisms of Ellis’s approach.

Front cover, Ellis and the Golfer3In Part 4, I write about:

– Ellis’s background and the links between his childhood and his theory of psychotherapy; his attachment to Extreme Stoicism; and the ways in which he imports a distorted conception of harm into his work with clients;

– His lack of understanding – (in practice; as opposed to the theory expressed in Chapter 2 of his 1962 book) – of the nature of human habits and the limited nature of choice. (Humans, being creatures of habit, do not seem to have any choice but to do what comes naturally; unless they are woken up to a choice that they were unaware of – say, by a therapist.  Even then, if I point out a choice to one of my clients, are they then free to choose one of the options, or are they not compelled by the evidence and/or particular arguments to ‘choose’ the option that they cannot help but ‘choose’. But Ellis insists that the unhappy golfer is ‘choosing’ to upset himself.

– How I moved beyond the simple ABC model, arriving at the holistic Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) model.

– The importance of the childhood of the unhappy golfer;

– The nature of cumulative, interpretive experience; and the ways in which the unhappy golfer’s personality is based on states of the ego – called Parent, Adult and Child ego states.

– His attachment style (secure or insecure: See Appendix B, below).

– His personality adaptation (which is how he adapted to his parents, when he was very young: See Appendix A, below).


Get your paperback copy of the new book today:

Amazon USA Amazon UK and Ireland Amazon Canada
Amazon Germany Amazon Spain Amazon Italy
Amazon Japan Amazon France Shipping to Singapore


I then present the ‘APET model’ from the Human Givens School of psychotherapy, which is structured like this:

A = Activating event: (The unhappy golfer’s peers reject him)

P = Pattern Matching: (This triggers a ‘pattern match’ with some experience from the past)

E = Emotion: (His emotional response is the same this time as it was in the past [by act of habit])

T = Thought: (The unhappy golfer’s thoughts follow from his emotions, and do not cause his emotions).

Front cover, Ellis and the Golfer3The APET model provides a better model for understanding the mind of the unhappy golfer, as compared with the simple ABC model created by Albert Ellis, which claims that:

A = Activating Event (The unhappy golfer’s peers reject him)

B = Belief system (The unhappy golfer ‘tells himself’ something irrational about this rejection)

C = Consequence (the Belief causes him to Feel terribly unhappy).

Then I look at ‘external affect regulation’ (or emotional soothing from an external person) as the thing the unhappy golfer needs to calm his emotions, and to then internalize as a new way to respond to being disliked by his golfing peers and/or others in the future.

Dr Jim's office2And finally I look at the difficulties of habit change, and the impossibility of ‘choice’ before consciousness of options. Plus a long section on how I would have dealt with the unhappy golfer, in terms of my perceptions and models of therapy, which can be evaluated by you, the reader, as compared against Albert Ellis’s use of the simple ABC model.


Jim Byrne, Hebden Bridge, June 2019



Get your paperback copy of the new book today:

Amazon USA Amazon UK and Ireland Amazon Canada
Amazon Germany Amazon Spain Amazon Italy
Amazon Japan Amazon France Shipping to Singapore



The following sources were used in researching and writing this book:

Ainsworth M (1967) Infancy in Uganda: Infant Care and the Growth of Love. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Ainsworth M.D. (1969) ‘Object relations, dependency, and attachment: A theoretical review of the infant-mother relationship’. Child Development, 40 (4): 969–1025.

Anderson, R. (1995) ‘The healing environment’: in Bill Moyers (1995) Healing and The Mind.  New York: Doubleday.

Anon (1973/2015) The Dhammapada. Taken from Juan Mascaró’s translation and edition, first published in 1973. London: Penguin Books (Little Black Classics No.80)

Aristotle (1925/1969) The Nicomachean Ethics. Oxford World’s Classics.  London: Oxford University Press.

Asch, S.E. (1951) ‘Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgement’.  In H. Guetzkow (ed.) Groups, Leadership and Men.  Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Press.

Asch, S.E. (1956) ‘A minority of one against a unanimous majority’.  Psychological Monographs, 70 (416).  And:

Atkinson, M. (2007) The Mind Body Bible: Your personalised prescription for total health.  London: Piatkus Books.

Aurelius, M. (1946/1992) Meditations. Trans. A.S.L. Farquharson.  London: Everyman’s Library.

Bargh, J.A. and Chartrand, T.L. (1999) ‘The unbearable automaticity of being’.  American Psychologist, 54(7): 462-479.

Berne, E. (1947/1986) A Layman’s Guide to Psychiatry and Psychonalysis. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. .   

Bloom, P. (2013) Just Babies: The origins of good and evil.  London: The Bodley Head.

Borchard, T. (2015) ‘10 Ways to Cultivate Good Gut Bacteria and Reduce Depression’. Everyday Health Blog: /therese-borchard-sanity-break/ways-cultivate-good-gut-bacteria-reduce-depression/

Bousfield, W.A. and Orbison, W. D. (1952) ‘Ontogenesis of emotional behaviour’. Psychological Review, Vol.59: Pages 1-7.

Bowell, T. and Kemp, G. (2005) Critical Thinking: a concise guide.  Second edition.  London: Routledge.

Bowlby J (1958). ‘The nature of the child’s tie to his mother’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 39 (5): 350–73.

Bowlby, J. (1988/2005) A Secure Base. London: Routledge Classics.

Bowlby, J. (2005/2010) A Secure Base: Clinical applications of attachment theory.  London: Routledge Classics.

Bretherton, I. (1992) ‘The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth’. Developmental Psychology 28: 759.

Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Burns, D. (1999) The Feeling Good Handbook. London: Plume/ Penguin Books.

Byrne, J. (2009a) ‘Rethinking the psychological models under-pinning Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)’.  E-CENT Paper No.1(a).  Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT.  Available online:

Byrne, J. (2009b) ‘The “Individual” and his/her Social Relationships – The E-CENT Perspective’.  E-CENT Paper No.9.  Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT.  Available online:

Byrne, J.W. (2010a) Therapy after Ellis, Berne, Freud and the Buddha: the birth of Emotive-Cognitive Embodied-Narrative Therapy (E-CENT). Out of print. Available as PDF from

Byrne, J. (2010b) ‘Self-acceptance and other-acceptance in relation to competence and morality’. E-CENT Paper No.2(c).  Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT.  Available online:

Byrne, J. (2011/2013) The Innate Good and Bad Aspects of all Human Beings (the Good and Bad Wolf states).  E-CENT Paper No. 25. Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT Publications.  Available online:

Byrne, J. (2012a) Chill Out: How to control your stress level and have a happier life.  E-CENT Institute and CreateSpace.

Byrne, J. (2012b) ‘What is Transactional Analysis (TA)?’ Online blog:

Byrne, J. (2013) A Wounded psychotherapist: Albert Ellis’s childhood, and the strengths and limitations of REBT/CBT. Hebden Bridge: CreateSpace Publication Platform with the Institute for E-CENT.

Byrne, J. (2018a) How to Write a New Life for Yourself: Narrative therapy and the writing solution.  Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT Publications.

Byrne, J.W. (2018b) Lifestyle Counselling and Coaching of the Whole Person: Or how to integrate nutritional insights, physical exercise and sleep coaching into talk therapy.  Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT Publications.

Byrne, J. (2019a) Holistic Counselling in Practice: An introduction to the theory and practice of Emotive-Cognitive Embodied Narrative Therapy. Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT Publications.

Byrne, J. (2019b) Facing and Defeating Your Emotional Dragons: How to process old traumas, and eliminate undigested pain from your past experience. Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT Publications.

Cardwell, M. (2000) The Complete A-Z Psychology Handbook.  Second edition.  London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Coates, G. (2008) Wanterfall: A practical approach to the understanding and healing of the emotions of everyday life.  An online e-book.  Available at this website: Downloads/Wanterfall.pdf.  Section 1: The origins of emotions.

Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ Error: Emotion, reason and the human brain, London, Picador.

Darwin, C. (1872/1965) The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

De Bono, E. (1995) Teach Yourself to Think.  London: Viking/Penguin.

Dewey, J. (1917) ‘The Need for Social Psychology.’  Psychological Review, 24 (1917): 266-277.

Doidge, N. (2008) The Brain that Changes Itself: Stories of personal triumph from the frontiers of brain science.  London: Penguin.

Dryden, W. and Yankura, J. (1995) Developing Rational Emotive Behavioural Counselling.  London: Sage Publications.

Egan, G. (2002) The Skilled Helper: a problem-management and opportunity-development approach to helping.  Seventh edition.  Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/ Cole.

Eisenberger, N.I., Lieberman, M.D., and Williams K.D. (2003) ‘Does rejection hurt? A fMRI study of social exclusion’.  Science, Vol. 302, Issue 5643, pp 290-292.  Available online at:

Ekman, P. (1993) ‘Facial expression and emotion.’ American Psychologist 48 (4): Pages 384-392.

Ellis, A. (1958). Rational Psychotherapy, Journal of General Psychology, 59, 35-49. And:

Ellis, A. (1962) Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. New York: Citadel/Carol Publishing.

Ellis, A. (2010) All Out: An autobiography.  New York: Prometheus Books.

Ellis, A. and Dryden, W. (1997) The Practice of Rational Emotive Therapy (Revised edition).  New York: Springer.

Ellis, A. and Dryden, W. (1999) The Practice of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.  Second edition.  London: Free Association Books.

Ellis, A. and Dryden, W. (1999) The Practice of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.  Second edition.  London: Free Association Books.

Enders, G. (2015) Gut: The inside story of our body’s most under-rated organ.  London: Scribe Publications.

Epictetus (1991) The Enchiridion. New York: Prometheus Books.

Erwin, E. (1997) Philosophy and Psychotherapy: Razing the troubles of the brain. London: Sage.

Evans, D. (2003) Emotion: a very short introduction. Oxford. Oxford University Press.

Ferraiolo, W. (2012) ‘Roman Buddha’.  Western Buddhist Review, Vol.5, 25th July 2012. Available online: http://www.western .html.

Fonagy, P., Gergeley, G., Jurist, E.J., and Target, M.I. (2002) Affect regulation, mentalization, and the development of the self.  New York: Other Press.

Fromm, E. (1995) The Art of Loving. London: Thorsons.

Gerhardt, S. (2010) Why Love Matters: How affection shapes a baby’s brain.  London: Routledge.

Gladwell, M. (2006) BLINK: The power of thinking without thinking.  London: Penguin Books.

Glasersfeld, E. von (1989) ‘Learning as a constructive activity’. In Murphy, P. and Moon, B. (eds) Developments in Learning and Assessment.  London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Goleman, D. (1996) Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ.

Gomez, L. (1997) An Introduction to Object Relations.  London: Free Association Books.  Chapter 7.

Gottman, J. (1997). Why Marriages Succeed or Fail: And how you can make yours last. London: Bloomsbury.

Gray, J. (2003) Straw Dogs: thoughts on humans and other animals.  London: Granta Books.

Griffin, J. and Tyrrell, I. (2004) Human Givens: A new approach to emotional health and clear thinking. Chalvington, East Sussex: HG Publishing.

Griffin, J. and Tyrrell, I. (2008) Release from Anger: A practical handbook.  Chalvington, East Sussex: HG Publishing.

Gullestad, S.E. (2001) ‘Attachment theory and psychoanalysis: controversial issues’.  Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, 24, 3-16.

Hill, D. (2015) Affect Regulation Theory: A clinical model.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.

Hobson, R.F. (1985) Forms of Feeling: The heart of psychotherapy. London: Routledge.

Hofstadter, D. (2007) I am a Strange Loop.  New York: Basic Books.

Holford, P. (2018) ‘Brain Allergies: How sensitivities to food and other substances can affect the mind’. Article at Safe Harbor:

Holmes, J. (1995) ‘Something there is that doesn’t love a wall.  John Bowlby, attachment theory, and psychoanalysis’.  In: Goldberg, S. et al (eds) Attachment Theory: Social, Developmental and Clinical Perspectives.  London: The Analytic Press.

IREBT (1990) ‘Albert Ellis – Live at the Learning Annex’. New York: Institute for REBT. An audio program.

Irvine, W. (2009) A Guide to the Good Life: The ancient art of stoic joy.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jacobs. E.E. (1993) Impact Therapy. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Joines, V. and Stewart, I. (2002) Personality Adaptations: A new guide to human understanding in psychotherapy and counselling.  Nottingham and Chapel Hill: Lifespace Publishing.

Kahneman, D. (2012) Thinking Fast and Slow.  London: Penguin Books.

Kaplan, B.J., and S.G. Crawford, C.J. Field … (2007) ‘Vitamins, minerals, and mood’. Psychological Bulletin, Sept; 133(5): Pages 747-760.  And:

Kaplan, B.J., Julia J. Rucklidge, Amy Romijn … (2015) ‘The emerging field of nutritional mental health: Inflammation, the microbiome, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function’.  Clinical Psychological Science, Vol. 3(6): 964-980.

Keirsey, D. and Bates, M. (1984) Please Understand Me: Character and temperament types. Fifth edition. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.

Kellogg, S. H. (2007). ‘Transformational chairwork: Five ways of using therapeutic dialogues’. NYSPA Notebook, 19 (4), Pages 8-9.

Krystal, P. (1994) Cutting the Ties That Bind: Growing Up and Moving on. Weiser Books.

LeDoux, J. (1996). The Emotional Brain: the mysterious underpinnings of emotional life, New York.  Simon and Schuster.

Levine, A. and Heller, R. (2011) Attached: Identify your attachment style and find your perfect match.  London: Rodale/Pan Macmillan.

Lewis, T., Amini, F. and Lannon, R. (2001) A General Theory of Love. New York: Vintage Books.

Lyons, W. (1986) The Disappearance of Introspection.  Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.

Mahler, M.S., Pine, F. and Bergman, A. (1975/1987) The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant: Symbiosis and individuation.  London: Maresfield Library.

Maier, N.R.F. (1931) ‘Reasoning in Humans: II – The solution of a problem and its appearance in consciousness’.   Journal of Comparative Psychology, 12: 181-194.

McGill, V.J. (1954) Emotions and Reason. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas Publishers.

Mehrabian, A. (1981) Silent messages: Implicit communication of emotions and attitudes. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth (currently distributed by Albert Mehrabian, email:

Milgram, S. (1974) Obedience to Authority.  New York: Harper and Row.

Moyers, B. (1995) Healing and The Mind.  New York: Doubleday.

Nelson-Jones, R. (2001) Theory and Practice of Counselling and Therapy.  Third edition.  London: Continuum.

Nierenberg, G.I. (1987) The Complete Negotiator, London, Souvenir Press Ltd.

Panksepp, J. (1998) Affective Neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. Oxford University Press.

Panksepp, J. and Lucy Biven (2012) The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotion: W.W. Norton and Company.

Perlmutter, D. (2014) Grain Brain: The surprising truth about wheat, carbs, and sugar – your brain’s silent killers.  London: Yellow Kite/Hodder and Stoughton.  And:

Perlmutter, D. (2015) Brain Maker: The power of gut microbes to heal and protect your brain – for life. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Perls, F. S. (1969). Gestalt Therapy Verbatim. Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.

Pinker, S. (2015) How the Mind Works.  London: Penguin Random House.

Porges, S. (2011) The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological foundations of emotion, attachment, communication, and self-regulation.  New York: Norton.

Quote Investigator (2019) ‘No One Can Make You Feel Inferior Without Your Consent’ (Not True). Blog: https://quoteinvestigator .com/2012/04/30/no-one-inferior/. Accessed: 24th June 2019.

Samantha Kate Psychology (2012) ‘David Reimer – Possibly the most unethical study in psychological history’. Blog: https://samanthakatepsychology.wordpress. com/2012/04/28/david-reimer-possibly-the-most-unethical-study-in-psychological -history/. Accessed: 30th December 2015.

Schore, A.N. (2003) Affect regulation and the repair of the self.  New York: Norton. And:

Schore, A.N. (2015) Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional Development. London: Routledge.

Sherif, M. (1936/1965) The Psychology of Social Norms. Octagon Books.

Sherman, N. (2005) Stoic Warriors: The ancient philosophy behind the military mind.  Oxford: Oxford University Press. Page 9.

Shermer, M. (2012) The Believing Brain: From spiritual faiths to political convictions – How we construct beliefs and reinforce them as truths.  London: Constable and Robinson.

Siegel, D.J. (2015) The Developing Mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are.  London: The Guilford Press.

Smith, P.K., Cowie, H., and Blades, M. (2011) Understanding Children’s Development.  Fifth edition.  Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley.

Spector, T. (2013) Identically Different: Why you can change your genes. London: Phoenix.

Stewart, I. (1989) Transactional Analysis Counselling in Action.  London: Sage.

Stewart, I. and Joines, V. (1987) TA Today: A New Introduction to Transactional Analysis. Nottingham: Lifespace Publishing.

Taylor-Byrne, R. and Byrne, J. (2011) ‘Exercise is good for your body, brain and general health’. E-CENT Paper No.18. Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT Publications.

Tylor-Byrne, R. and Jim Byrne (2012) ‘How to meditate – A brief introduction’. Available online:

Taylor-Byrne, R., and Jim Byrne (2017) How to Control Your Anger, Anxiety and Depression: Using nutrition and physical activity. Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT Publications.

Taylor-Byrne, R. (2019) Safeguard Your Sleep and Reap the Rewards: Better health, happiness and resilience. Hebden Bridge: The Institute for E-CENT Publications.

Teachworth, A. (1999) Why We Pick the Mates We Do: A step-by-step program to select a better partner or improve the relationship you’re already in. Metairie, Louisiana: The Gestalt Press.

Turner, J.H. (2000) On the Origins of Human Emotions. A sociological inquiry into the evolution of human affect.  Stanford University Press.

Verma, D. (2018) ‘Three Types of Ego States and Transactional Interactions between Each’. Blog: http://www.share your  Accessed: 5th November 2018.

Waite, M. (2012) Paperback Oxford English Dictionary.  Seventh edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wallin, D. (2007) Attachment in Psychotherapy.  New York: The Guildford Press.

WDDTY (2015) ‘Painkillers and mass killings’. News item. What Doctors Don’t Tell You, dated August 2015, page 14.

Zex, C. (2015) Scientists find no link between antidepressants and homicidal behaviour. Science Nordic, June 5th 2015. Online at: scientists-find-no-link-between-antidepressants-and-homicidal-behaviour

Zimbardo, P. G., Banks, W.C., Craig, H. … (1973) A Pirandellian prison: The mind is a formidable jailor.  New York Times Magazine, April 8th, 38-60. And: